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In competitive chess, a player scores one point for a win, a half-point for a draw, and zero points for a loss. So the rankings at the end of a tournament are easy to calculate by simple addition.

In the early 19th century, when modern competitive play began, draws were ignored, and a match was won by the player who first scored an agreed number of wins, or who had the most wins after an agreed number of games. With the advent of all-play-all tournaments (the first international all-play-all was held in London in 1851) draws became more important. At first, rules were devised to discourage draws, which were very unpopular with the chess public, but gradually these were dropped and draws were counted as a half-point.

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